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Monday, 20 February 2012



Saturday, 4 June 2011

Salvador Dali Biography

Full Name: Mr. Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí Y Domenech
Date of Birth: May 11, 1904
Place of Birth: Figueras, Spain
Died: January 23, 1989
Place of Death: Figueras, Spain
Classification: Artists & Entertainers

Known for his absolute flamboyance in the early to latter 20 th century, Salvador Dali became an artist of the surreal; painting his revelations and illusions in a fashion that had never been known. His audacity and eccentric behavior would win him global recognition, and his work would inspire countless other artists who followed his lead.

Born in Spain, Salvador Dali didn’t have the happiest of childhoods, per se. In the autobiography of Salvador Dali, he mentions that he was a cruel child and was always intrigued with shapes, colors, and dreams around him. A self-declared genius, he also claims he learned much about the world in utero.

Dali began studying art and never felt another calling. After studying cubism, he began to evolve his own tastes and styles into an almost fantasy-like manner. His work would take him endless hours of careful calculations. And, no matter how exact or poignant, the objects would be strangely bent with bright colors on much more bland backgrounds. Surrealism became his forte, especially when he visited Paris and was taken with the progressive movement of art theory and practice. His focus would take him into other fields for inspiration: from abnormal psychology to other fields.

During his time in France, artists began revolting against modern movements due to the political distress of the nation. They believed that France should be settled and calm before they could move forward in art and spark an evolution based on, but away from their forefathers. Dali, however, had different ideas. He thought that his own interpretation of objects, along with a diluted sense of reality would allow him to take surrealism to another level.

alvador never followed those of the mainstream anyway. But, he chose to do his renditions differently, even though he appeared somewhat mad in the public eye. He eventually broke away from the surrealist movement and began doing much better commercially than any other artist of the time. However, he was duped into selling his copyrights. An organization in the United States , called Friends to Save Dali, helped him bring the fraudulent cases to public awareness and also helped support him through some of his artistic endeavors. Finally, in the early 1980s, Dali gained more fame when he gave a showing at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Spain


Sam Walton Biography

Full Name: Mr. Samuel Moore Walton
Date of Birth: March 29, 1918
Place of Birth: Kingfisher, Oklahoma, USA
Died: April 5, 1992
Place of Death: Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
Classification: Builders & Titans

Although his children became the richest heirs in the world from an empire he built, Sam Walton started Wal-Mart after working his way up in the world of discount retail sales. His vision, smart distribution, and his niche market set him a part with virtually no competition.

In the latter 1930s, Walton, who was just out of high school, attended the University of Missouri. He graduated with good marks in the competitive economics program, then soon after married Helen Robson. With the outbreak of World War II, he served in the Army for three years and returned to Des Moines, Iowa to work with the J.C. Penny Company for a few years. With a loan and his savings, he opened a successful branch of the Ben Franklin store. For over fifteen years, he operated nine stores. When he saw the boom of Kmart and Sears in offering discount prices to the mass of shoppers looking for reduced rates, he approached the Ben Franklin management headquarters. But, they were not interested in his ideas for their company.

In 1962, he opened up his first Wal-Mart store in Arkansas. His plan was to offer low prices to those in rural areas, where he did not have to compete with the bigger chains on the east and west coasts. His store prospered so quickly that within ten years he would have nearly 200 stores to his name. Sam Walton was directly involved with the setting up of each one of his stores, the hiring of managers, and overseeing their smooth operation that stuck to the visions of American quality and great service for a price that couldn’t be beat.

Sam Walton had great distribution methods as well. He built his stores near distribution centers so that items could be delivered quickly – usually within 24 hours. Additionally, he promoted a ‘Buy American’ trademark that appealed to customers in all the nearly 1,000 stores that he had seen constructed. His next step of expansion was Sam’s Wholesale Club, where members, such as owners of small businesses, could buy supplies and eventually everything else Wal-Mart sold in bulk and at even greater discount prices. Sam’s Club had vast appeal because of its members-only style of operation and it’s ability to offer massive warehouses of goods in a no-frills setting with basic employee presence.

This combination eventually led to the hyper-store creation of Wal-Mart Supercenters, which made his previous regular Wal-Mart stores look like the small five-and-dime stores with the Ben Franklin store arena. In the biography of Sam Walton, called Made in America, he discusses how his vision had prospered so well. He had started in the south and the Midwest of the U.S., and only when he had a secure hold on the market, did he attempt to compete against the even bigger retail giants. Wanting to take Wal-Mart to a truly national level, he began opening stores in higher-populated areas. By the time of his death, he left behind nearly 30 billion dollars to his children, who have gone global with the Wal-Mart vision. Now, their annual sales top 150 billion dollars.


Edna St. Vincent Millay Biography

Born: February 22, 1892
Rockland, Maine
Died: October 19, 1950
Austerlitz, New York
American poet

Edna St. Vincent Millay was an American lyric (expressing direct and personal feeling) poet whose personal life and verse reflected the attitudes of rebellious youth during the 1920s

Early life and education
Edna St. Vincent Millay was born in Rockland, Maine, on February 22, 1892, one of Henry Tollman Millay and Cora Buzzelle Millay's three daughters. Her father worked as a teacher. Edna's parents divorced when she was eight, and she moved with her mother and sisters to Camden, Maine. Her mother worked as a nurse to support the family. She encouraged her daughters to be independent and to appreciate books and music. Edna studied piano and considered a music career, but when one of her first poems appeared in St. Nicholas magazine, she decided to become a writer. "Renascence," a long poem written when she was nineteen, appeared in a collection called The Lyric Year (1912) and remains a favorite. A wealthy friend, impressed with Edna's talent, helped her attend Vassar College in New York.

Begins writing career
Following her graduation in 1917, Millay settled in New York's Greenwich Village and began to support herself by writing. Her first volume, Renascence and Other Poems (1917), brought her some attention. She also wrote short stories under the pseudonym (false writing name) Nancy Boyd. A Few Figs from Thistles appeared in 1920. In 1921 she issued Second April and three short plays, one of which, Aria da Capo, is a delicate but effective satire (making fun of) on war.

In 1923 Millay published The Harp Weaver and Other Poems, which won the Pulitzer Prize. She also married Eugen Jan Boissevain, a wealthy Dutchman. In 1925 they bought a farm near Austerlitz, New York. Millay participated in the defense of Nicola Sacco (1891–1927) and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (1888–1927), two Italian anarchists (those who rebel against any authority or ruling power) who had been accused of murdering two men in a Massachusetts robbery. Many people believed that the two men were charged only because they were foreigners and because of their political beliefs. In 1925 Millay was hired to write an opera with composer Deems Taylor (1885–1966); The King's Henchman (1927) was the most successful American opera up to that time. That year, after Sacco and Vanzetti were sentenced to death, she wrote the poem, "Justice Denied in Massachusetts," and also contributed to Fear, a pamphlet on the case.

Addresses social topics
Millay issued Buck in the Snow (1928), Fatal Interview (1931), and Wine from These Grapes (1934). She tried a dramatic dialogue on the state of the world in Conversation at Midnight (1937), but the subject was beyond her grasp. She returned to the lyric mode in Huntsman, What Quarry (1939). The careless expression of her outrage at fascism (a political movement that places nation and race above the individual and supports a government run by a single leader) in Make Bright the Arrows (1940) took away from its power. The Murder of Lidice (1942) was written in response to the destruction of a Czechoslovakian town by the Nazis (members of the controlling power in Germany from 1933 until 1945). Then Millay began to lose her audience; Collected Sonnets (1941) and Collected Lyrics (1943) did not win it back

For More Information
Epstein, Daniel Mark. What Lips My Lips Have Kissed: The Loves and Love Poems of Edna St. Vincent Millay. New York: Henry Holt, 2001.

Gould, Jean. The Poet and Her Book. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1969.

Milford, Nancy. Savage Beauty: The Life of Edna St. Vincent Millay. New York: Random House, 2001.

Sheean, Vincent. The Indigo Bunting: A Memoir of Edna St. Vincent Millay. New York: Harper, 1951. Reprint, New York, Schocken Books, 1973.


Dominique Nils Conseil

Born c. 1962. Education: Institute National de Languages et Civilisations Orientals, degree in Pacific anthropology and Polynesian languages; École de Hautes Études Commerciales du Nord, masters degree in management (marketing and international finance); also attended École Superieure des Officers de Reserves du Service d'Etat Majore.

Addresses: Office —Estée Lauder Companies Inc., 767 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10153.

Spent ten years as brand-management and marketing associate for Proctor & Gamble; joined L'Oreal Parfums and Beauties and launched L'Oreal's prestige subsidiary in Thailand; served as president and representative director of Cosmelor Ltd., L'Oreal's Japan subsidiary; named president of Aveda, 2000.

Dominique Nils Conseil became president of Aveda in 2000. The French cosmetics executive took over the reins of the immensely successful hair- and skin-care manufacturer from its legendary founder, Horst Rechelbacher, but was firmly committed to preserving Rechelbacher's original mission of bringing safe, environmentally friendly products to the market. "What I find is that the beauty industry is not very beautiful," Conseil reflected in an interview with Fast Company writer Danielle Sacks. "It can't be beautiful if it's not also doing good."

Conseil spent most of his young adult years pursuing his education, after a stint in the French army. At the Institute National de Languages et Civilisations Orientals, he earned a degree in Pacific anthropology and Polynesian languages, and went on to further study at the École de Hautes Études Commerciales du Nord, one of the top-ranked business schools in Europe. He earned a master's degree in management, with a focus on marketing and international finance, and joined the overseas office of the American personal-care products giant Proctor & Gamble. For the next decade he held various brand-management and marketing jobs at the company, including postings to its Singapore and Malaysia branches. In this capacity he helped introduce or oversee sales of such Proctor & Gamble staples as Vidal Sassoon, Pantene, Head and Shoulders, Oil of Olay, and Clearasil in Asian markets.

Conseil moved to French cosmetics powerhouse L'Oreal Parfums and Beauties, and oversaw the launch of a L'Oreal prestige subsidiary in Thailand. Once again, his earlier anthropology and Polynesian languages education served him well, for he was fluent in several languages besides his native tongue, including Swedish, Japanese, Thai, and Tagalog, the language of the Philippines. After four years in Bangkok, Conseil was promoted to head L'Oreal's Cosmelor operations in Japan. This was the subsidiary that made and sold the Lancôme, Helena Rubinstein, and Biotherm skincare and cosmetics lines, as well as the Ralph Lauren, Giorgio Armani, and Lanvin fragrances.

Conseil became president of Aveda in 2000, taking over from Horst Rechelbacher, the company's Austrian-born founder. A hairdresser by training, Rechelbacher arrived in the United States in the mid-1960s and settled in Minneapolis. Over the next decade, his Horst & Friends salon enjoyed immense success as one of the Twin Cities' poshest salons, but along the way Rechelbacher developed an amphetamine-abuse problem. After restoring his health by using his Austrian mother's herbal remedies, he founded Aveda in 1978 with the launch of his first product, a clove shampoo. A full line of hair-care and body products followed, all made from botanical extracts and sold only in salons initially. The company developed a cult following for its all-natural, plant-based products, and Rechelbacher was determined to grow his company in a way that reflected his own principles of respect for the environment.

Aveda experienced tremendous growth during the 1990s, and in 1997 was acquired by Estée Lauder Companies Inc. for $350 million. It was just one in a string of notable acquisitions for the Lauder firm in that era, and Aveda joined a stable of high-end brands that included the makeup lines MAC and Bobbi Brown Essentials. Executives at Lauder brought Conseil on board to take over duties from Rechelbacher, who remained involved as a consultant. But as Conseil later admitted, he joined the company at a time when some at Aveda were still nervous about the new corporate parent. "A lot of my employees came to me and asked, 'Is it still okay to live up to the Aveda mission?'" Conseil told Sacks in the Fast Company interview. "I realized that people in the company needed to see that the mission of Aveda was still core to the company."

Conseil's first task was to improve Aveda's distribution network, and oversee an expansion plan into Asia and the Pacific. He was also firmly committed to ensuring that research into new products continued, and continued with Aveda's original goals at the forefront. "Some people say you cannot pursue naturalness and deliver cutting-edge results," he said in the Fast Company article. "That's just something petrochemical companies say. They have to discredit nature because they cannot take a patent on a plant."

Aveda consistently earns high marks from environmental watchdog groups for its dedication to protecting natural resources and reducing consumer waste. Before Conseil joined Aveda, the company had discontinued one fragrance line because it was unable to locate the exact source of the Indian sandalwood oil used for the blend. Rather than take a chance that illegal harvesting of the sandalwood trees was taking place and the oil finding its way to the Aveda lab, the company halted production. Conseil took up the cause, and in 2002 Aveda relaunched the line after finding a new source in Australia, where the oil was harvested by aboriginals in a process that did not degrade the land.

Following Rechelbacher's lead, Conseil led Aveda forward in its commitment to being green. "We are increasing the organic content in our products," he told the London Sunday Times ' Bethan Cole. "All our aromas have to be 100 percent organic-certified oils; as for the rest of the formula, we would not approve anything that didn't have a 95 percent plant mineral content." He also devised a checklist for all Aveda products. Those responsible for each division must ensure that shampoos, bath products, cosmetics, aromatherapy candles, and other products come from verifiable sources and that the use of each ingredient does not adversely affect the local community. Aveda has a target goal of zero waste, and Conseil is one of its chief proponents. Aveda's plastic bottles, for example, are made from 80 percent post-consumer recycled content.

Rechelbacher, who turned 60 the year after he stepped down as president, knows his company's original principles are secure under Conseil's watch. "He is my thermometer, I trust him," he told Cole in the Sunday Times interview. "If they try to change anything, he will leave."

Fast Company , August 2004, p. 50.

Sunday Times (London, England), January 18, 2004, p. 31.

WWD , April 7, 2000, p. 6; October 27, 2000, p. 10


John Stuart Mill Biography

Born: May 20, 1806
London, England
Died: May 8, 1873
Avignon, France
English philosopher and economist

Adult life
Thomas Carlyle (1795–1881) once described Mill's life as "the autobiography of a steam engine." Nonetheless, in 1826 Mill underwent a mental crisis. He felt empty of satisfaction even with all of his knowledge. Mill eventually overcame his depression by opening himself to poetry. When he was twenty-five, he met Harriet Taylor, and she became the most important influence of his life. Although she was married, they maintained a close relationship for twenty years, eventually marrying a few years after her husband's death.

For More Information
Mill, John Stuart. Autobiography of John Stuart Mill. New York: Columbia University Press, 1924. Reprint, Krumlin, Eng.: Ryburn Pub., 1992.

Skorupski, John. John Stuart Mill. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Stafford, William. John Stuart Mill. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998.


Marcus Aurelius Biography

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